Due to the diversity of learners regarding cognitive, affective, and psychomotor, some of them tend to learn slower than others. In this context, it is the responsibility of the teacher to help them to be at the same point. Teachers should help students who are falling back by employing reading programs that touch on all of the learning modalities that various groups of learners bring to the classroom (Temple, Ogle, Crawford, & Freppon, 2013). Additionally, “There should be a well-supported role for every element in balanced reading programs,…such as connected text” (Temple et al., 2013, p. 52). Teachers are advised to read-aloud activities that aim at building background information and vocabulary. The preparation helps the learners to plan in advance to understand their individual reading of the text later (Gillies, 2007). Teachers should use peer-approach strategy in which struggling students are taught with their peers. Teachers should use motivation and inculcate positive attitudes. Moreover, different levels of learning should be utilized. According to Temple and colleagues (2013, p. 58), “Struggling students benefit more from reading a variety of reading levels for different purposes and from different genres.”
Teaching children to read in mother tongue with the goal of helping them to read and write English is advantageous in many ways. First, it is important to state that what learners learn in two languages is interdependent. “…linguistic interdependence hypothesis indicates that what students learn in two languages are interdependent” (Temple et al., 2013, p. 497). Teaching in the mother tongue is faster because children learn more effectively in their language. Another advantage of teaching English in learners’ mother tongue is they have knowledge and skills that they have learned in their language, and they do not need to be taught them. Temple and associates (2013, p. 497) argue that “Children have knowledge and skills that they have learned in their mother tongue, and they can use them in the second language.” Therefore, based on the fact that there is a positive transfer of skills, and bilingual teachers are available, it is right to say that using mother tongue has some advantage.

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RTI is defined as the “recent changes in the application of special education laws, the Individuals with Disability Act of 1997 and 2004” (Temple et al., 2013, p. 55). Its process entails three steps, which include the collective monitoring for early recognition of learners at risk of experiencing problems in comprehending, offering of levels of teaching that range starting from standard classroom curriculum to an all-inclusive involvement, as well as continuous assessment of learners’ progress. Notably, RTI is comprised of a multi-tiered structure that focuses on preventing students from failing in reading. The tiers are standard education, additional intervention for learners with unique needs and intensive intervention for small groups. The general education forms the core, and it involves all learners while the small group intervention is “based on the universal screening assessment administered in tier one for those at risk (Temple et al., 2013, p. 56). On the other end, the last layer, which is exhaustive involvement, is “based on formal diagnostic, combined with unsatisfactory progress in tier two…” (Temple et al., 2013, p. 56). Evidently, the small size group is meant to cater to the needs of learners who have not demonstrated the progress from tier one. Evidence-based literacy programs are utilized in level two and three in the TRI programs. Mostly, there are strategies that are employed to ensure that students improve. Instructions that students receive in RTI programs are characterized by the identification of learning disabilities and ensuring that they receive an appropriate education. Additionally, it permits early recognition of reading challenges, implying there is the provision of early intervention. Another feature is that reduces over-identification of English language learners as well as the various groups. According to Temple and colleagues (2013, p. 55), “the goal of RTI is not…, but to identify children who have disabilities and avoid the negative consequences of children…” Assessment plays an essential role in the process of RTI for the reason that it helps tutors to meet the needs of unique learners at risks of failure in literature. Equally, the requirements of diverse students are met within the RTI structure by the utilization of instruction that is responsive to the requirements of individual learners.

  • Gillies, R., (2007). Cooperative Learning: Integrating Theory and Practice. New York, NY:
    SAGE Publications, Inc.
  • Temple, A, C., Ogle, D., Crawford, N, A., & Freppon, P., (2013). All Children Read: Teaching
    for Literacy in Today’s Diverse Classrooms. New York, NY: Pearson.