Question 1: Khomeini’s attitude toward monarchy is that it is a secular form of power that needs to be eliminated in order for an Islamic country to be truly in line with spiritual teaching. He believes that the Shaw is more concerned with secular power than he is with the spiritual well-being of the people, He was angry that the Shaw seemed to support western views on the status of women and he did not agree with the monarchy’s political oppression. although he at first seemed to be supportive of the monarchy he eventually showed his belief that it needed to be abolished.
Kohmeini envisions a government that rules through spiritual guidance, totally based on the Qur’an. All laws and actions need to be taken with the holy Book in mind. The Ulema would be a council that ruled, rather than a monarchy or a western-style government. The role of government is to ensure that the people and the land are both centered in spirituality rather than secular life. He says that government should be the divine rule over men, and the divine should be the only one to rule. The Ulema is the planning body” that would ensure that the divine rule is implemented and maintained.
There is definitely a suggestion that Kohmeini is aware of the traditional Shi’i feelings of persecution. The writing shows that he shares those feelings. He mentions that persecution several times in the piece, using references to it to enforce his current argument. He is saying that the monarchy needs to be abolished because of its persecution and criticism of traditional Shi’i ideals and practices. He says that the monarchy is oppressing the people who believe in true Islam, and relates that to other times throughout history when similar things have happened. The secular government is just one in a long line of institutions and political entities to persecute the Shi’i.