In the 21st century, given the process of globalization and other major social changes, the problem of unemployment is a very actual one. More specifically, many college students upon graduation face the problem of well-paid jobs being scarce. Regardless of the fact that this problem has always been common, the degree of college graduates’ unemployment is unprecedented today. It is therefore important to address the problem and develop certain mechanism that might be helpful in terms of increasing graduates’ chances of getting a well-paid job, and thus avoid unemployment and all the problems that are connected to it. Taking into account some empirical evidence, it would be logical to assume that personal service jobs, jobs from certain industries of economy, together with the rejection of certain social values regarding the labor market are closely intertwined with higher chances of being employed.
The problem that American society faces today is the job offshoring. Job offshoring is defined as ‘the movement of jobs overseas, especially to countries with much lower wages, such as India and China’ (Behrens & Rosen 441). This can be regarded as one of the consequences of globalization, given that due to certain technological advances, including the rise of internet, the phenomenon of ‘travelling’ of jobs has become possible. It is argued that manufacturing jobs have been migrating abroad for many years. It is important to note, however, that the phenomenon of the migration of service jobs is relatively new (Behrens & Rosen 441). Today the degree of service jobs outsourcing is not high, and barely reaches 1 percent. However, it is often argued that the number will increase in the nearest future due to the economic advances of hiring people abroad. It is therefore important to acquire a better understanding of the service jobs that have a higher possibility of being outsourced, and thus avoid these jobs. More specifically, there are certain types of jobs that are closely intertwined with the physical connection between the customer and the employee, such as the job of a taxi driver. Such jobs are ‘personal’ and thus are not likely to migrate abroad. In the meantime, the job of a call center worker can be relatively easy performed by individuals from other countries, given that no physical interaction is required. Behrens and Rosen argue that ‘many of the impersonal service jobs will migrate offshore, but the personal service jobs will stay here’ (443). It is therefore important to take into account this fact when making career decisions.
Another important factor that is to be addressed when discussing the mechanisms of avoiding the problem of unemployment upon college graduation, is the type of the economy sector that a job belongs to. More specifically, every historical period is intertwined with the development of the respective sectors of economy. These sectors thus demand more workforce, and significantly increase the probability of a students with the respective major being employed without difficulties. In order to identify those sectors of economy that are mostly likely to hire more people, it is important to refer to the statistical data. More specifically, according to Bureau of Labor Statistics, Projected Annual Employment Rate of Change by Major Industry Sector indicates that such sectors as federal government, utilities, manufacturing and agriculture are characterized by the lowest rate of employment (Behrens & Rosen 457). In the meantime, sectors that include healthcare and social assistance, construction, educational services, and professional and business services have the highest rates of employment (Behrens & Rosen 457). Apart from this, it is important to refer to the empirical evidence regarding the level of education and unemployment rates. As found by Current Population Survey, those individuals that have less than a high school diploma have also the highest unemployment rate (Behrens & Rosen 456). In the meantime, individuals with doctoral degree are characterized by the lowest probability of being unemployed (Behrens & Rosen 456). Regardless of the fact that these results might seem to be obvious, they once again emphasize the importance of good education in terms of good career opportunities. The higher one’s education degree is, the better are the chances of him or her facing the problem of unemployment, because this person has the unique skills that are hard to obtain.
Modern American society has adopted certain values that emphasize the importance of an individual doing what he or she loves. More specifically, Steve Jobs has contributed to the formation of this value, arguing that success that be achieved only when you ‘do what you love’. However, there is some evidence that challenge the credibility of these words and that is to be discussed. Namely, according to a number of studies, ‘the strongest predictor of a person seeing her work as a calling’ is the number of years spent on a job (Behrens & Rosen 464). It thus leads us to the idea that the experience is the strongest determinant of an individual loving or not loving his or her work. In order to decrease the probability of unemployment, it is thus important to develop the skills that are demanded on the labor market. It is argued that the important skill is not to focus on the values that works offer a person, but focus on the value that a person is producing when doing his or her work (Behrens & Rosen 465). It is hard to detach from those values that people have adopted as the result of their socialization in the United States, and that stress a focus on the importance of work, very often the importance of work importance above everything else. However, sometimes it is required not to give one’s job a lifetime importance, but simply view it as a means of earning money to be able to live.
In conclusion, it is important to note that the changing patterns of society have led to some major changes in the labor marker. More specifically, the process of globalization has created a situation, where the degree of job security and the probability of being employed t are rather low, if compared to the past. It is thus important to introduce certain changes to one’s values and one’s career decisions that would match these new patterns. Namely, getting a degree that would help one to find a job in the field of personal services increase one’s chances of being employed, given that such services are not likely to be outsourced in the nearest future. Apart from this, it is important to do a major that provides career opportunities in those sectors of economy that demand more labor force that other setors, such as the field of medical services, construction etc. It also might be helpful to adhere to certain values that emphasize the importance of producing values in the job, rather than to those values that stress a focus on personal interest in one’s job. As shown by many studies, love comes as a result of experience. Finally, an important skill that is to be developed is viewing a job as a means of getting economic capital rather than the area of like that is worth the biggest expenses of time and efforts.
- Behrens, Laurence, and Leonard Rosen. “The Changing Landscape of Work in the 21st Century.” Writing and Researching Across Curriculum. 3d ed. London: Longman, 2005. 429-472. Print.