Describe the differences between juvenile community corrections and institutional corrections
Juvenile community corrections differ from institutional corrections in the following ways. First, juvenile community corrections involve supervision in the community when juvenile probation takes place whereas institutional corrections involves juveniles’ placement in semi-secure or secure institutional facilities such as temporary detention centers, group homes, juvenile shelters, wilderness camps, and state training schools (Lawrence & Hemmens, 2008). Second, community corrections include such alternatives to incarceration which institutional corrections do not: fines, community service, and restitution; by contrast, institutional corrections are expensive. Third, it has been found that community corrections reduce recidivism while institutional corrections foster it (Clear, Reisig, & Cole, 2015).
Identify and explain the variations in juvenile probation
Variations in juvenile probation include: school probation, restitution, family counseling, volunteers in probation, peer group counseling, intensive probation, and contract probation. School probation involves the placement of a juvenile probation officer at school for direct supervision of juveniles.
Team probation involves a team of specialists, including members of communities, to provide supervision. Intensive probation is an alternative to incarceration, where the terms of probation as well as the reporting schedule are strict, and which is similar to home arrest. Contract probation is when the probation officer and the probationer choose and sign a type of contract, in order to achieve certain goals. Peer group counseling involves running programs to increase peer cooperation and acceptance while family counseling probation involves implementing such programs where juveniles are treated in the context of families. Restitution is about community service and compensation to victims (NCJRS, 2017).
Describe what boot camps are designed to do
Boot camps are short-term residential programs aiming to stop young offenders through placing them in quasi-military environment and creating shock. Behavior gets modified through the punishment of negative behavior and the rewards for positive one (Benda, 2013). In particular, boot camps feature strict rules, regimented living, rigorous physical demands, and stern discipline (Benda, 2013).
- Benda, B. (2013). Rehabilitation issues, problems, and prospects in boot camp. Routledge.
- Clear, T., Reisig, M., & Cole, G. (2015). American corrections. Cengage Learning.
- Lawrence, R. & Hemmens, C. (2008). Juvenile justice. Sage.
- NCJRS (2017). Variations on juvenile probation. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/