For many years, truancy has been a significant issue within the educational school system. Therefore, it is necessary to examine the causes of truancy in order to initiate ways to increase student attendance. Despite existing literature regarding bullying, such as its nature, contexts, risk and protective factors, and long- and short-term effects, there is still very limited general knowledge regarding bullying (Gastic, 2008). In general, bullying is defined as negative or psychological actions that have been repeated perpetrated by bullies and their victims, most often through unprovoked attacks (Townsend, Flisher, Chikobvu, Lombard, & King, 2008). Bullying, therefore, can lead to increased fears, which, in turn may negatively impact academic progress. Due to the advancement of social media, a new type of bullying; that is cyberbullying, has emerged. Cyberbullying refers to the bullying of an individual through electronic forms of communications. Thus, not only do victims of bullying worry about attacks at school, but also through digital communication means.
At this time, none of the prior efforts to combat school truancy have been successful, prompting other issues such as graduation rate declinations and increasing instances of high school dropouts. The purpose of this investigation is to examine the possible link between bullying and truancy. This will involve considering the relationship between bullying and students missing school and/or skipping class; student social isolation due to lack of acceptance by peer;, and the potential influence of addressing bullying in relation to high truancy rates. However, it is recognized that in some situations, school-based anti-bullying programs have had some positive effects on bullying in different high schools (Swearer, Espelage, Vaillancourt, & Hymel, 2010).
The educational facility in question has had problems relating to high school truancy for many years. Therefore, if the society wishes to improve academic standards and/or create better economic opportunities, it is necessary to decrease school absenteeism (Reid, 2012). Bullying is commonly associated with higher disciplinary action rates for excessive trouble making, school (either in- or out-of-school suspension), or transferring due to disciplinary reasons. Excessive trouble making was attributed to 20% of bullying victims as opposed to 15% of non-victim counterparts (Gastic, 2008).
There are many factors influencing chronic truancy such as social awkwardness caused by social isolation and lack of acceptance by peers at school. While these students may not experience bullying (although some may), there may still be a low desire to attend school due to this isolation. Lack of parental support may also contribute to truancy, particularly in cases where the importance of school is less likely to be stressed, such as in households where parents did not attend college or have limited education (Marvul, 2012).
A study conducted by Townsend et al. (2008) focused on bullying behavior rates and predictions of high school dropout rates due to bullying in Cape Town, South Africa. The sample for the study was conducted through a stratified proportional method, resulting in 39 of 214 schools participating in the study. From these 39 schools, 40 Grade 8 classrooms were selected, resulting in 1,470 total student participants. The study was conducted using a self-report questionnaire in 1997 and 2001 in order to emphasize the dropout rate. Factors strongly related to high school dropout rates (such as demographic factors, addiction factors, familial status, and academic achievement) were controlled via the use of univariate and multiple logistic regression models. According to Townsend et al. (2008), in 1997, it was found that “52% of the boys and 37% of the girls had been involved in bullying behaviors,” based on three categories (victim, bully, and bully-victim) finding that girls within the final category (bully-victim) were statistically more likely to drop out of school.
Despite the concerns related to bullying behavior, the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program has been successful in a range of factors. The goal of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program is to reduce incidences of bullying and to establish improved peer relations in the different school settings (elementary, middle, and high school). When initiating the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program in Norway, positive results were noted. While the results of the program within the United States have been variable, in general, it has been noted that in schools with the program, a positive impact has been noted in relation to self-reports of involvement in bullying and antisocial behavior (Olweus & Limber, 2010). In another study conducted by Ttofi and Farrington (2011), it was noted that anti-bullying programs are effective because bullying incidences decreased by 20% to 23%, while victimization decreased by 17% to 20%. It was noted that more intensive programs were more influential on bullying, as were programs that involved parent meetings, disciplinary actions, and increased supervision. However, cooperations between peers commonly resulted in increased victimization (Ttofi & Farrington, 2011).
It is necessary to analyze the connections between a school’s psychosocial condition and the pervasiveness of different bullying behaviors that either prompt or result from that condition. It is also important to analyze how the recurrence of aggressive behaviors, such as bullying, experienced by students (as culprits and as victims) added to their translation of their school’s psychosocial condition and how those situations influenced the presence of ongoing aggressions and avoidance practices (Meyer-Adams & Conner, 2008). The data was archived from the Philadelphia School District during the 1993-94 school year. To understand bullying consequences, structural equation modeling was used to develop a hypothetical model of prescient connections among (1) students’ impressions of bullying practices and safety at school, (2) the schools’ psychosocial condition based on students’ measurements, and (3) the students’ reactionary conduct to both of the prior connections (Meyer-Adams & Conner, 2008).
Bullying is not a new phenomenon to the school environment. Students are also victims of verbal animosity within web chatrooms (known as cyberbullying). Through a study conducted with 1700 students from different German schools, a solid connection was found between exploitation in school and exploitation in web chatrooms; school victims are more frequently web chatroom victims. Moreover, the indicators of web chatroom and school exploitation demonstrate similar commonalities and differences (Katzer, Fetchenhauer, & Belschak, 2009).
Over 97% of young people in the United States are associated with the Internet somehow. An unintended result of the Internet’s unavoidable reach is the developing rate of destructive offenses against youngsters and those in high schools. Cyberbullying exploitation is one such offense that has as of late got a lot of consideration (Tokunaga, 2010). The present report orchestrates discoveries from quantitative research on cyberbullying exploitation. An integrative definition for the term cyberbullying is given; contrasts between customary harassing and cyberbullying are clarified, ranges of merging and dissimilarity are offered, and inspecting as well as methodological clarifications for the irregularities in the writing are considered. Around 20–40% of all adolescents have encountered cyberbullying at any rate once in their lives. Statistic factors, for example, age and sexual orientation don’t seem to anticipate cyberbullying exploitation. Proof recommends that exploitation is related with genuine psychosocial, emotional, and scholastic issues (Tokunaga, 2010).
Open secondary school students (n = 1,325) finished a self-report poll measuring being harassed and life fulfillment. Various strategic relapse examinations were directed to analyze the connections between being tormented and seen life fulfillment crosswise over four race and sexual orientation gatherings (Kerr, Valois, Huebner, & Drane, 2011). Results demonstrated that huge affiliations (p ≤ .05) were set up for lessened life fulfillment and being harassed in the course of recent months because of religion for whites and male African Americans (OR = 3.18–4.84); exploitation because of sex for male African Americans and white females (OR = 3.07–4.52); exploitation for race/ethnicity for whites and female African Americans (OR = 2.46–3.88); exploitation for sexual introduction for guys (OR = 3.42–4.51) and exploitation for a handicap for every one of the four race/sex gatherings (OR = 2.92–7.35) (Kerr et al., 2011). Results recommend that apparent life fulfillment is identified with an assortment of differentially propelled exploitation encounters, however not consistently crosswise over race and sexual orientation gatherings (Kerr et al., 2011).
One study analyzed the connection between teenagers’ encounters with brutal exploitation and scholarly accomplishment. Information from the 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were broken down for males (N = 8,537) and females (N = 7,816). Multinomial calculated relapse investigations were utilized to evaluate the connection between scholastic accomplishment and vicious exploitation (Hammig & Jozkowski, 2013). Among guys and females, 6.6% and 4.4%, individually, earned evaluations of for the most part Ds or Fs amid the previous year. Among guys, those gaining for the most part Ds or Fs had an expanded chances of having been harmed in a battle (balanced chances proportion [OR] = 2.2, 95% certainty interim [95% CI]: 1.5-3.3) or undermined at school (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-2.9) when contrasted with guys who earned for the most part As or Bs. In addition, the individuals who earned for the most part Cs were at expanded chances of having been undermined at school when contrasted with guys who earned for the most part As or Bs (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.9) (Hammig & Jozkowski, 2013). Among females, those acquiring for the most part Ds or Fs had a higher chances of having been harassed at school (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.3), undermined at school (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1-2.3), or fiercely defrauded by a personal accomplice (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.4-3.0) when contrasted with females who earned for the most part As or Bs. Comparable discoveries were watched while analyzing females gaining generally C grades. Scholastic accomplishment is connected to exploitation designs among male and female young people. Despite the fact that the fleetingness of the relationship is misty, the quality of the affiliations increment as scholarly accomplishment diminishes (Hammig & Jozkowski, 2013). The problem being addressed in this study is the possible link between bullying and truancy, including other factors of chronic truancy, and the potential correlations between bullying and high school truancy.
Significance of the Study
The inspiration driving this examination is to look into the association between being badgering and having truancy and disciplinary issues at school. By focusing on the Students who have truancy issues and concentrating on the high peril kids who are slanted to play hooky, we can benefit as a group. Moreover, higher truancy rates compare to higher wrongdoing bits of knowledge in the group. The motivation behind this examination is to research the connection between being harassed and having truancy and disciplinary issues at school. By concentrating on the Students who have truancy issues and focusing on the high hazard kids who are inclined to play hooky, we can gain as a group. With effective focusing on the hazard understudy indicating inclinations to play hooky, we can expand our graduation rate. Additionally, higher truancy rates liken to higher wrongdoing insights in the group.
Bullying – Bullying involves the use of force, threats, or coercion to abuse, intimidate, or aggressively dominate others (Gastic, 2008).
Cyberbullying – Cyberbullying involves electronic posting of mean-spirited messages about a person (as a student), often done anonymously (Slonje, Smith, & Frisén, 2013).
Delinquency – Delinquency refers to conduct that is out of accord with accepted behavior or the law (Gastic, 2008).
Truancy – Truancy refers to school absenteeism without good reason is often equated with truancy, irrespective of cause (Reid, 2012).
Victimization – Victimization refers to the unfair treatment of another person (Tokunaga, 2010).
Review of the Literature
There are many explanations behind secondary school students playing hooky and high truancy rates. The straightforward meaning of truancy is missing school for no great purpose. Be that as it may, the inquiry is more perplexing than a basic definition. Three distinct terms are utilized to portray students’ non-participation. Truancy could be characterized as unlucky deficiencies which students themselves demonstrated would be unsuitable to educators. ‘Inadmissible nonappearances’ were characterized as nonattendances, which were unsatisfactory to educators and nearby training experts yet not perceived all things considered by students, is a developing scourge in our secondary schools today (Reid, 2003). ‘Parentally supported unlucky deficiencies’ were the consequences of guardians keeping students far from school (Reid, 2012). There are a few reasons why truancy is an issue. Studies demonstrated students’ non-participation was specifically related to scholarly accomplishment. Truancy and constant school unlucky deficiencies have been unfavorably connected with bring-down levels of understudy’s confidence (Reid, 2012). Students who feel socially unsatisfactory or dismissed frequently play hooky and have other medical problems, for example, melancholy. Perpetual truancy has additionally been connected to high wrongdoing rates in the groups that have high truancy rates in the secondary schools.
Students with poor school participation seem more prone to experience issues in social circumstances, particularly concerning making and keeping companions. These students turn out to be all the more socially detached and regularly are casualties of torments. Studies show exploitation to be common among truant students (Havik, Bru, & Ertesvåg, 2015). Constant truancy can likewise be connected to harassment from peers. Conventional harassing or cyberbullying assumes a part in students’ missing school. Both types of tormenting impact an understudy’s life. Ordinarily, an understudy will skip classes or not go to class so that he/she can abstain from being harassed. In principle, truancy or nonappearance in school because of fear of going to class may enhance the impact of the connection amongst exploitation and scholastic accomplishment (Hammig and Jozkowski, 2013).
Being tormented at school is essentially connected to more elevated amounts of most, yet not measures of school truancy and disciplinary issues. Being harassed at school renders understudies closed down and pull back socially and scholastically. Harassing incorporates both physical and verbal hostility, which is efficient, progressing set of conduct impelled by an individual or a gathering of people who are endeavoring to pick up power, notoriety, or products. Being tormented has been decidedly connected with weapon conveying, some type of vicious misconduct, liquor and medication utilize and smoking (Gastic, 2008). Roughly 22% of secondary school understudies revealed being tormented amid the 2006-2007 school year (Hamming and Jozkowski, 2013). Harassing and companion exploitation have been connected to various wellbeing related issues, for example, discouragement and self-destructive musings. Being harassed has likewise been connected to feeling hazardous and dismal at school. The disgrace of being harassed has been related to playing hooky to keep away from the exploitation (Hamming and Jozkowski, 2013). Around 5% of understudies reported playing hooky in 2009 to abstain from being tormented or misled (Hamming and Jozkowski, 2013).
Researches have demonstrated that bitterness and jealousy might be the biggest motives for those involved in bullying. Whereas bullies are narcissistic and egotistical, they can also use bullying as a way of covering anxiety or shame so as to enhance their self-confidence; they feel stronger when they demean others. Such individuals may bully due to envy or even due to the fact that they have also been victims of the same. Research shows that individuals who are exposed to abusive behavior appear to have bloated but delicate egos. Since they are full of themselves, they are often upset by the criticisms together with the lack of regard for others, and respond to this lack of respect with a lot of anger and aggression (Hinduja, & Patchin, 2009).
Some other factors that can lead to bullying include depression or personality disorders, being used to forceful ways, mistaking the actions of other individuals for hostility, urge for the protection of one’s image and involvement in rigid conducts. When all these actions are combined, they can always lead to bullying. Moreover, bullying might also be due to a genetic predisposition in the perpetrator. While some parents can assist their children develop emotional management to deal with aggression, some of them do not successfully acquire such skills as a result of insecure bonds with their families together with environmental factors like tense life at home and unfriendly siblings.
Cyberbullying is a type of harassment that happens over the internet. Lately, cyberbullying has become more and more common among the youths. This is a kind of harmful and distasteful bullying or harassment that may involve writing rumors about an individual, giving threats, expressing sexual remarks, revealing an individual’s secret or personal information, or even calling them names that they are not comfortable with. This kind of bullying can always be identified through constant or regular conduct or intention to cause harm to the targeted victim (Keith, & Martin, 2005). Such actions can always cause the victims to have lower self-confidence, enhanced suicidal ideation together with several other emotional reactions such as revenge, being afraid, depression and anger. Several studies have revealed that cyber bullying can at times be more dangerous and harmful as compared to the conventional bullying (Reid, 2012).
However, there are several ways that the victims of cyberbullying can adopt in order to successfully deal with the perpetrators and the effects of the harassment. For girls, most of the bullying targeted at them is always sexual; that is messages sent to them or posting some information about them that might not be true (Hinduja, & Patchin, 2008). Therefore, the best way of dealing with such is completely ignoring such messages and posts. This is because reacting to them can only escalate the problem. In fact, their intentions is always triggering the reaction of the victim so that they can feel that they have achieved what they intended, hence, the victim should at no given time grant them that desired satisfaction. It is also essential that the victim does not attempt to seek vengeance on the perpetrators by doing the same or even worse. This is because it can only serve to worsen the already bad situation and the result could be some serious legal challenges. But if one has just to respond, then it should be done verbally and not online.
Relevance of truancy
Truancy at schools matter for a few reasons. As a matter of first importance, considers demonstrate that understudies’ non-participation was straightforwardly corresponded with scholastic accomplishment. Students who were truant from school were frequently out performed as far as scholastic accomplishment at each level of school (Reid, 2012). Second, truancy and relentless school unlucky deficiencies have been connected with bring down levels of confidence, melancholy, conduct and vocation desire in this manner influencing their monetary status in adulthood (Reid, 2012). Additionally, there has been a connection amongst truancy and high wrongdoing rates in the group. Groups with high truancy rates at the secondary school level have high wrongdoing rates. Young people who have unending truancy issues will probably smoke, drink, and utilize unlawful medications than non-truant understudies (Havik et al., 2015).
The cost of truancy is high for the understudy as well as the state. The normal school truant in the United States costs society in overabundance of $200.000 because of the excessively high criminal equity, social administration and wellbeing costs (Reid, 2012). Truancy is likewise a disturbance to the ordinary learning goals in the classroom. Returning truants frequently take up significant class time attempting to “make up for lost time” and regularly upset the learning of different understudies and disappoint instructors and staff (Havik et al., 2015).
Studies show bullying does have an effect on high school truancy. Students who feel isolated and socially awkward are less likely to show interest in school and therefore more likely to have truancy issues. Truancy issues promote several problems with a school and community. Day time crime rates increase when high school truancy rates rise. In addition, there is a direct relationship between bullying and truancy. Students who undergo or experience excessive bullying are more likely to miss school due to the fear of being harassed, which affects their self-esteem. Lately, bullying has been on the rise and is mostly attributed to factors such as revenge and self-esteem issues. Others include depression or personality disorders, being used to forceful ways, mistaking the actions of other individuals for hostility, urge for the protection of one’s image and involvement in rigid conducts. If not properly managed, bullying can lead to serious consequences on the side of the victim.
Action Research Design
The members of this examination were 9-12 secondary school understudies from a rural school found appropriate outside of Houston. Member socioeconomics were African American 2.4%, Hispanic 47.5%, White 46.4%, American Indian, 0.3%, Asian 1.6%, two or more races 1.7%. The aggregate populace of the grounds is 4, 026. Financially impeded 36.2%, Non-Educational Disadvantaged 63.8%, English Language Learners (ELL) 3.7%, Students w/Disciplinary Placements 3.6%, A Risk 35.4%, Mobility 10.8%. Members were ninth twelfth graders who finished the online poll through Survey Monkey. With the coordinated effort between myself, Marc Milliorn, participation representatives, and our grounds truancy officer will choose an aggregate of roughly 30 understudies. These understudies will be the ones who we feel have had truancy issues in the past however are on have demonstrated some change in participation. Out of these 30 understudies we will haphazardly pick 20 understudies to concentrate our investigation on.
Our principle number one goal is to recognize those understudies who are incessantly truant. When we can recognize the students who have had issues with incessant truancy, we will execute our mediation steps. One of the main things we need to take a gander at is how did understudies who were on the cusp of dropping out of school change their conduct? What persuaded them to begin going to class on a more general premise? These understudies will converse with the high hazard understudies and talk about what rolled out them improvement their conduct? This will be done in little gathering sessions.
Besides, our truancy officer will meet with roughly 20 understudies in little gatherings of 2 or 3 that we feel can at present be “spared” from dropping out of school. She will talk about the law concerning truancy. The little gatherings will tune in to every others’ experience and by doing as such will assemble an association with each other. Understudies will sign truancy contracts expressing they will go to class all the time. These agreements will express their desires, rules, and outcomes if contract is broken.
One of the advantages of beginning school at 8:45 a.m. is instructors on our grounds need to answer to class at 8:00 a.m. With a 45 minute revealing time educators have a considerable measure of time to guide, advice or tutor grieved understudies. One of the thoughts we will attempt another program. When we distinguish the understudies that have truancy issues we will match them up with 20 volunteer educators. The 20 volunteer educators will put morning telephone calls twice seven days to these understudies with support for going to class.
Data Collection and Analysis
My coach and myself, alongside our grounds truancy officer will gather information on truancy. We will utilize the subjective research to direct the meetings. We will lead one on one meetings with understudies who have had issues with truancy before. We will begin with those understudies who we feel are ‘going back and forth’. Alongside my tutor, we will go out inquiring and request that the appropriate and sincere responses be given. Inquiries will comprise of cases of harassing. A Likert scale will be issued to discover how the understudies feel about school wellbeing. The information gathered from these meetings and studies will enable us to center our thoughtfulness regarding actualizing our mediation
On average, school safety was considered to be moderate. The participants to the study did not believe that the school was exceedingly safe, yet did not believe, it was exceedingly unsafe. Overall, the participants suggested that bullying has a negative impact on everyone and that everyone must participate in the ending of bullying. Several participants argue that since it is not actively occurring to them, they should disregard the action. However, others argued that while being victimized, the humiliation felt is worsened when it is known that no one will help. These same participants argue that other students can choose to not participate in the bullying because lack of support shows the bully that “you don’t concur with what’s going on. In the event that you see somebody being snickered at, rather than turning your back, help the victim to turn his or her back to the tormenting by strolling to class with him or her, disclosing to them that they don’t merit what’s transpiring.” Younger participants stated that the best support given is being made aware that they are not alone and that this support would increase the likelihood of them attending class on a regular basis.
One participant previously within a bully-victim situation (where the individual was both a bully and a victim) argued that bullying and victimization can be overcome, stating “You can reclaim control; however, you don’t need to do it all alone. Keep in mind, bullying is never your fault and you have the opportunity to make it stop. Start reclaiming control by conversing with your parent or a grown-up you can trust. Moreover, you aren’t alone. Some kids are bullies, some are victims, and some are both, like I was. It took a long time to understand how many people I hurt until I started being bullied. Now I work to help my classmate overcome their victimization experiences and have become friends with many of my prior victims because I changed my life and earned their trust.”
The results were as expected in relation to the literature, suggesting that bullying is a significant concern. Moreover, several participants argued that bullying can be overcome. One participant, who was once a bully and a victim, argued that individuals can change and assist other victims from being bullied further. A study conducted by Townsend et al. (2008) focused on bullying behavior rates and predictions of high school dropout rates due to bullying in Cape Town, South Africa, finding that “52% of the boys and 37% of the girls had been involved in bullying behaviors,” based on three categories (victim, bully, and bully-victim) finding that girls within the final category (bully-victim) were statistically more likely to drop out of school.
Conclusions and Recommendations
The results show that changes can be made within bullying behaviors in order to reduce incidences of bullying, leading to truancy. Bullying is not a new phenomenon to the school environment. Students are also victims of verbal animosity within web chatrooms (known as cyberbullying). Through a study conducted with 1700 students from different German schools, a solid connection was found between exploitation in school and exploitation in web chatrooms; school victims are more frequently web chatroom victims. Moreover, the indicators of web chatroom and school exploitation demonstrate similar commonalities and differences (Katzer et al., 2009). Over 97% of young people in the United States are associated with the Internet somehow. A unintended result of the Internet’s unavoidable reach is the developing rate of destructive offenses against youngsters and high schoolers. Cyberbullying exploitation is one such offense that has as of late gotten a considerable lot of consideration (Tokunaga, 2010). Participants argued that all types of bullying are devastating, confirming the literature. However, participants put more emphasis on helping one another, as opposed to depending on school programs.
For future conductions of this study, it may be more beneficial to conduct a quantitative study, requesting participation of the whole student body of the school. This would be beneficial because it would provide more well-rounded responses. While the current study is beneficial, it is narrow in participants, which does not provide an accurate description of the situation within the school.
It is recommended that school officials consider peer support groups for both bullies and victims independently and together. For instance, independent groups can work on issues that specifically affect them (such as why they bully in the case of bullies and why they are victimized in the case of victims). In the case of a mutual group, activities may be introduced to promote peer relationships and cooperation. It may also be beneficial for bullies to be able to provide personal and anonymous insight to victims as to why they behave the way they do, to provide apologies, or anything as long as it is respectful. Victims should also have these same opportunities in relation to the group with bullies.
Gaps still exist because there is such limited generalized data regarding bullies and victims. Studies show bullying does have an effect on high school truancy. Students who feel isolated and socially awkward are less likely to show interest in school and therefore more likely to have truancy issues. Truancy issues promote several problems with a school and community. Day time crime rates increase when high school truancy rates rise.
It is necessary to analyze the connections among a school’s psychosocial condition and the pervasiveness of different bullying behaviors that either prompt or result from that condition. It is also important to analyze how the recurrence of aggressive behaviors, such as bullying, experienced by students (as culprits and as victims) added to their translation of their school’s psychosocial condition and how those situations influenced the presence of ongoing aggressions and avoidance practices (Meyer-Adams & Conner, 2008). The data were archived data from the Philadelphia School District during the 1993-94 school year. To understand bullying consequences, structural equation modeling was used to develop a hypothetical model of prescient connections among (1) students’ impressions of bullying practices and safety at school, (2) the schools’ psychosocial condition based on students’ measurements, and (3) the students’ reactionary conduct to both of the prior connections (Meyer-Adams & Conner, 2008). A study conducted by Townsend et al. (2008) focused on bullying behavior rates and predictions of high school dropout rates due to bullying in Cape Town, South Africa. The sample for the study was conducted through a stratified proportional method, resulting in 39 of 214 schools participating within the study. From these 39 schools, 40 Grade 8 classrooms were selected, resulting in 1,470 total student participants. The study was conducted using a self-report questionnaire in 1997 and 2001 in order to emphasize the dropout rate. Factors strongly related to high school dropout rates (such as demographic factors, addiction factors, familial status, and academic achievement) were controlled for through the use of univariate and multiple logistic regression models. Per Townsend et al. (2008), in 1997, it was found that “52% of the boys and 37% of the girls had been involved in bullying behaviors,” based on three categories (victim, bully, and bully-victim) finding that girls within the final category (bully-victim) were statistically more likely to drop out of school. On average, school safety was considered to be moderate. The participants to the study did not believe that the school was exceedingly safe, yet did not believe, it was exceedingly unsafe. Overall, the participants suggested that bullying has a negative impact on everyone and that everyone must participate in the ending of bullying. Several participants argue that since it is not actively occurring to them, they should disregard the action. However, others argued that while being victimized, the humiliation felt is worsened when it is known that no one will help. These same participants argue that other students can choose to not participate in the bullying. Ultimately, it was asserted that it may be possible for bullies and victims to work together to stop bullying within the school.
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