The existence of God remains an object of heated religious, social, and cultural debates. Numerous arguments, philosophies, and theories were developed to prove or deny that God exists. The text provides a summary and evaluation of the main arguments to prove that God exists. The ontological, teleological and cosmological arguments make it easier for the reader to see God in the very essence of nature.
The ontological argument is based on pure logic. It was presented and explained by Descartes. In essence, the ontological argument relates the very idea of God to the necessity of His existence (52). In light of the growing number of witnesses and evidences of God’s miracles, the ontological argument suggests that God exists too truly to be thought of as nonexistent (53). Moreover, the role, significance, and essence of God is so great that it is absolutely impossible to think of Him as nonexistent. In the words of Descartes, the being of God is so supreme that the mere fact of human existence cannot be fully separated from the idea of God, like no mountain in the world can be separated from the valley that surrounds it (54-55). Descartes further describes the key characteristics of God which, in his view, logically follow from the undisputable fact that God exists.
Here, Kant presents a different view on God and God’s existence, stating that logic cannot explain the existence of something or someone. Moreover, the mere fact of existence does not guarantee that the thing or matter that is believed to exist possesses certain characteristics (59). However, Kantian arguments do not reject the very possibility that God exists. On the contrary, they highlight the complexity of the argument and make it easier for the believers to see the other side. What Descartes means is that a person cannot talk or think of God without accepting His existence. Even a discussion God is a serious proof that He really exists.
Here, the cosmological argument comes into play. It is based on the assumption that God not only exists but also creates the world. It justifies the necessity of God’s existence by the complexity of the nature and world design (60). The roots of the cosmological argument can be found in the works of Thomas Aquinas, who presented five different justifications of God’s existence. For instance, Aquinas speaks about motion, suggesting that everything that moves should be moved by something else (60). Because all things in nature cannot move forever, it is God who is responsible for every movement and who acts as the primary mover of everything on the planet (60). Like the ontological argument, the cosmological argument is a combination of proofs that God exists and a common belief in God (62). Back to the complexity of natural design, it is possible to say that the very existence of such complexity becomes possible only in the presence of God (66).
The teleological argument is also developed by Aquinas, who assumes that some intelligent being is responsible for the creation and evolution of everything in the natural world, and this being is God (66). Hume continues this argument, making a claim that the world is not perfect, which is why God is also imperfect (67). However, Hume’s argument does not deny the existence of God; nor does Darwin’s theory of evolution weakness the philosophic proofs provided at different times to confirm that God exists. Under the influence of Darwin’s theory, the teleological argument of God’s existence suffered enormously (68).
Yet, it would be better to say that Darwin cannot diminish the weight of theory and facts supporting the existence of God. In no way does Darwin’s evolution contradict the very notion of God’s role as a creator of everything. It simply implies that the process of creation could be longer than many people use to believe.