Globalization is a fairly new word used to define an age-old phenomenon. It is a process that started with human ancestors traveling from Africa to spread across the world. In the thousands of years that followed, technology has helped to overcome the obstacle of distance and human barriers have been improved to facilitate the exchange of commodities, ideas, and knowledge. Globalization is motivated by a wish to improve the standard of life which in turn led to interdependence and interconnectedness among people. While globalization has served to improve living standards, it has also served to create new problems.
Globalization occurred for economic, social, cultural and political purposes. The underlying factor in all kinds of globalization is the technology and systems of communication and transport and the knowledge and expertise that drive it (Northrup). A network is simply a series of interconnected points (Davis). The word network is directly derived from the idea of a net where there are threads or wires organized in an open-network of cloth for capturing birds or fish (Davis). The more well-known and widely used of net is the ‘structural’ part of it where systems are linked together (Davis).
Social media and technology
Computers were founded in the most rudimentary structure by ancient people in the form of abacuses (Leiner et al.). Afterwards, just before the Industrial Revolution they developed mechanical computational gadgets (Leiner et al.). ENIA was one of the earliest computers that were used by the military for the purpose of weapon development calculations (Leiner et al.). The computer had less power than the modern common calculator (Leiner et al.). Steve Wozniack became the first creator of a personal computer after the advent of microchips (Leiner et al.). Microchip technology replaced the slow, unreliable, and massive transistors (Leiner et al.). After Wozniack and Jobs created Apple 2, the personal computer industry expanded exponentially where millions of them were sold to replace punch-card machines (Leiner et al.).
The Internet was initiated in 1962 by the Department of Defense (Leiner et al.). At the time, the few computers that existed had the same amount of power as today’s digital watch (Leiner et al.). It was considered a very risky undertaking and it connected top universities to protect their research work from possible natural disasters or war (Leiner et al.). At the time, the Internet was known as ARPANET, which only developed in government and military circles (Leiner et al.). With time, ARPANET gained more users, standards for sending and receiving information, and networks (Leiner et al.). By 1973, there were 30 networks linked to ARPANET leading to a massive expansion (Leiner et al.). In 1984, ARPANET became public then closed down right after which the World Wide Web was developed to facilitate the transmission of multimedia across the Internet (Leiner et al.).
Following the creation of the World Wide Web was social media, which is an Internet platform for interactive communication. Social medial has eased communication across the world and made it possible for people of like-mind to talk about numerous topics, to learn, and to share. The Internet also provides an opportunity for remote learning where people can take classes online without needing to be physically present at the learning institution and also to access unlimited amounts of academic papers, journals, and articles.
While nobody technically owns the Internet, there are many legal issues as pertains to the Internet such as consumer protections, copyright, barred content, and defamation (Beale). Legalities of the Internet are categorized into three;
the dissemination of information or distribution of content including pictures, images, texts, film, and sound
e-commerce, which is the sale of goods and services through the internet
and networking and communication services such as Skype and Twitter and social networking sites such as Facebook and G+ (Leiner et al.).
These three factors bring about many legal issues such privacy, copyright, and laws that are involved with telecommunications and online business (Leiner et al.).
Caravan routes in the Middle East and shipping routes in the Mediterranean are some of the world’s earliest trading systems. It was through these courses that goods were transported to and from civilizations from Phoenicia to India. Rome controlled the whole of the Mediterranean and Europe gave traders a new perspective of the West (Northrup).
The smooth flow of goods and international currencies played a key role in enhancing and sustaining globalization in the past and in modern times as well (Northrup). Other factors that are part of global integration have led to historical development (Northrup). Political factors today and in history have worked to promote, hinder, and control trade (Northrup). The creation of institutions, regulatory frameworks, and legal systems that promote or obstruct the growth of international trade activities and solve trade cases has its roots in historical trade.
Terrorism is a trend that has permeated almost all parts of the world at the close of the 20th century and at the start of the 21st century (Lutz and Lutz). Modern terrorism has been a response to the globalization process. Western cultures and secularism has posed a threat to erasing indigenous cultures and religions which have been exposed to a more expansive world (Lutz and Lutz).
Islamic groups have openly resisted to the secularization effects of globalization. Terrorist groups such as ISIL and Boko Haram are acts of rebellion founded in religion where the members of such groups wish to preserve their customs and culture from western secularization (Lutz and Lutz). Terrorism poses a huge threat to global peace (Lutz and Lutz). Jewish extremist groups in Israel have responded to globalization by attacking Palestinian Arabs and targeting Jewish citizens that they deem too worldly (Lutz and Lutz).
Globalization goes further than cultural and economic dimensions to include the military. Governments utilize military or police to promote health and safety and t safeguard security and stability in the face of geopolitical and environmental threats (Lutz and Lutz). Although it may appear implausible to use the military to achieve these ends it can be successful when used in a proper manner. Public safety today is ensured through solutions that focus public-private collaboration in a context similar to counterinsurgency techniques used by military force (Lutz and Lutz). Military-like force is should be used in a thoughtful and precise manner but should never be the only solution in the face of an international enemy as in the case of terrorism (Lutz and Lutz).
Due to globalization labor markets are no longer limited to regional or national boundaries but are expanded to the international market (Felbermayr et al.). As such the labor market has increased dynamically. The cost of living in Western Europe is about 70% more than the cost of living in Asia making a huge difference in wages (Felbermayr et al.). There is a huge competition for cheap labor. The wage gap between many Western European countries and developing countries in Asia and Africa means that many businesses prefer to do their production operations in low-wage countries (Felbermayr et al.).
Globalization is an ancient phenomenon used to describe the movement of people from their original residents to foreign places. Globalization was motivated by adventure and a quest for a better standard of living through trade and exchange of knowledge. Networking has been enhanced by computer technology and the Internet which has made trade and communication faster and easier. When it comes to labor, it is highly likely that even higher skilled labor will be moved to low-wage countries. Globalization has brought about numerous advantages such as more efficient interconnectedness and disadvantages such as the rise of wars and terrorism.
- Beale, Elizabeth. “The Internet and the Law.” The Law Handbook 2016. 30 June 2015. Web, 21 Dec. 2016.
- Davis, Jim. “Networks and globalization.” Global Studies Association meeting, Knoxville, TN. 2005.
- Felbermayr, Gabriel, Julien Prat, and Hans-Jörg Schmerer. “Globalization and labor market outcomes: Wage bargaining, search frictions, and firm heterogeneity.” Journal of Economic theory 146.1 (2011): 39-73.
- Leiner, Barry M., et al. “Brief history of the internet.” Internet Society (1999). Web. 21 Dec. 2016
- Lutz, Brenda and James Lutz. “Globalization and Terrorism in the Middle East.” Terrorism Research Initiative. 2015: Vol 9(5). Web. 21 Dec. 2016.
- Northrup, David. “Globalization in Historical Perspective.” World System History, http://www. eolss. net/sample-chapters/c04/e6-94-16. pdf, (19.04. 2015) (2015).