Public transport improvement is a measure used to reduce the negative effects of traffic such as reduction of traffic jams and reduction in pollution through development of efficient modes of transport. Public transport can include but not limited to; road, water, air or rail transport. There are various ways in which this transport can be improved to ensure more efficient delivery of transport services. For example, by providing separate lanes for pedestrians, parking management, improving design of vehicles, using traffic rules and use of advanced modes of transport. Road transport has always been the main means of public transport due to its flexibility, affordability and convenience. It is hypothesized that public transport has improved greatly since when various means of transport were introduced thus minimizing the effects of caused by traffic.
The literature review in this paper seeks to support this hypothesis by using various case studies.
In the case of Dubai metro, whose construction contract was awarded to Dubai Rapid Link consists both red and green lines. Red line’s construction took off in 2005 and begun operating in 2009 consisting of twenty nine operating stations (Zi 2010). The green line was underway from 2006 and was opened in 2011 and has twenty operating systems. The whole Dubai metro system is up to 74.6km with the red line starting at Rashidiya and ending in Jebel Ali while the green line is from Etisalat to Creek. There are plans of extending these lines and the construction of three more lines due to the increasing population over time. The metro is fully automated. Approximately, the metro has a capacity of about 1.7 million people who use it therefore it very convenient during rush hours (Zi 2010). It was initiated due to the rapid growth in population which increased the traffic jams and congestions (Zi 2010). The metro uses trains with no drivers which is an excellent form of transport development therefore it uses the technique of driverless, completely automated metro network.
In another case study, the Dubai bus has been used as an example of transport improvement in Dubai. The bus is very large and operates on 193 routes while transporting tens of millions of people on weekly basis (Al Tayer 2010). The Road Transport Authority runs the Dubai bus stations and buses. They have installed GPS systems that monitor routes and the stations which is important for it helps in controlling traffic jams and for the safety of the people. It has proved challenging to use the monitoring system to the RTA since it was difficult for them to own a control room for monitoring all activities involving the buses. The number of these buses was not enough considering the number of people who require this mode of transport. This led to the vision of introducing more buses which started to be operational in 2008 (Al Tayer 2010). Due to the rapid growth of population in Dubai, there is need for improvement in these mode of transport as years go by which is in progress by introduction of electric buses.
In a case study done by Cervero’s (2000) the use of paratransit which is an unscheduled service of public transport that utilize the use of small buses, vans, taxis and other smaller vehicles is another way which public transport has developed in Dubai (Hickman, Desai & Potter 2014). These form of development is very reliable and flexible since the passengers can control their movement from origin to destination. Paratransit makes it possible for the user to have freedom of movement but not by using personal vehicles which helps in reducing negative impacts of transport such as traffic jams and it also has a lower cost (Hickman, Desai & Potter 2014). These paratransit services are characterized by individuals owning them and whereby they employ drivers or be drivers themselves. Most of the owners’ form associations to regulate the vehicle number that can operate in a certain route. Most paratransit vehicles have a capacity of twelve to eighteen passengers. These vehicles can also roam on streets to pick up passengers to take them to formal pick-up points. Though these mode of development is important it has been very difficult to control it as there are so many of them. In his study, Cervero’s argues that this mode of transport is not very effective in minimizing the negative impacts of traffic.
The use of tram systems in Dubai is another example of a case study in the development of transport. Dubai has two tram systems with the first one being Downtown Burj Dubai Tram System which is 4.6km long and the other one is the Dubai Tram which is 14.5 km (Jalal, Daud, Adel, Mourad, Shihab & Abdullah 2015). The Dubai Tram runs in one direction while Downtown Burj Dubai Tram system runs in two directions (Jalal, Daud, Adel, Mourad, Shihab & Abdullah 2015). With a capacity of up to 300 passengers the trams can cruise to speeds of 50km/h as the maximum limit. The tram also connects the with the Dubai metro. The tram is used to reduce the delay in roads in highly populated areas which cause traffic jams (Jalal, Daud, Adel, Mourad, Shihab & Abdullah 2015). The tram has its own challenges since people complain because the trams are given priority which leads to a halt in traffic thus increasing traffic jam especially where the two trams intersect near Marina towers. The use of the tram encourage people to use public means of transport to reduce traffic jams. The tram uses the technique of electrification which has been a great development in public transport.
In my opinion, the best technique used in development of transport is the use the Dubai metro. This is because it has many advantages in curbing the negative impacts caused by traffic. The Dubai metro though expensive, it doesn’t need a driver for it to operate, it is secure due to the installed GPS systems to monitor it. This metro is also fast and has a capacity of carrying many passengers. While using this mode of transport, there are no traffic jams and helps the people during rush hours. The Dubai metro is therefore the best way that has been used to improve transport.
Six sigma is a technique used in the process of improvement. It is used to improve the quality of production by classifying and identifying and removing the causes of the problems in manufacturing of products and also in businesses (Drohomeretski, Gouvea da Costa, Pinheiro de Lima, & Garbuio 2014). By carrying out the six sigma project the organization targets the following; reducing the time required in processing, reducing pollution, cost, increasing the satisfaction of customers and increasing profits (Evans & Lindsay 2014). Abu Dhabi is using this technique to improve Abu Dhabi bus station in for various reasons. The transport department use the six sigma process to enhance the coverage and quality of the buses for it to carry more passengers in different regions of Abu Dhabi emirates. The bus station also wants to minimize the pollution caused by the buses by introducing the electric buses that are pollution free. Due to increase in population, the need for transport in Abu Dhabi has increased therefore the bus station requires more buses in short time whereby they use this six stigma technique. The use of comfortable reliable buses for the satisfaction of customers by the Abu Dhabi bus station is as a result of the use six sigma technique. All these brings profit to the bus station since this technique helps them provide quality services.
Transport development has been of great advantage considering the case studies discussed above. Each case study shows how the development of a certain mode of transport has helped reduce the negative effects caused by traffic. Though there are still gaps in transport development, most of the transports have greatly improved.
- Al Tayer, M. (2010). Making Public Transport the Mode of Choice in Dubai. Public Transport International, 59(6).
- Drohomeretski, E., Gouvea da Costa, S. E., Pinheiro de Lima, E., & Garbuio, P. A. D. R. (2014). Lean, Six Sigma and Lean Six Sigma: an analysis based on operations strategy. International Journal of Production Research, 52(3), 804-824.
- Evans, J. R., & Lindsay, W. M. (2014). An introduction to Six Sigma and process improvement. Cengage Learning.
- Hickman, R., Desai, V., & Potter, R. B. (2014). Transport and sustainability. The Companion to Development Studies, 378.
- Jalal, J., Daud, S. H., Adel, M., Mourad, N., Shihab, M., & Abdullah, N. (2015). Dynamic Barrier System For Traffic Control.
- Zi, J. (2010). Metro System of Dubai. Urban Rapid Rail Transit, 2, 043.