AbstractThrough the combination of the opposing pairs of functions and attitudes, psychologist Dr. Carl Jung identified a series of 8 particular patterns that determine how the mind works. These patterns represent the simplistic foundation of Jung’s theory, that is, “when our minds are active and we are awake, we are alternating between taking in information and making decisions in our internal and external worlds” (MBTI Type Today, n.d.). Composed in his now famous research publication known as Psychological Types, Jung worked to describe the way in which individuals are characterized by the way their minds “habitually prefer one pattern over another” (MBTI Type Today, n.d.). These function-attitudes include extraverted sensing. introverted sensing, extraverted intuition, introverted intuition, extraverted thinking, introverted intuition, extraverted thinking, introverted thinking, extraverted feeling, and introverted feeling.
Theories of Personality: Carl Jung
What is the overall purpose/direction behind personality?
The eight attitudes or states of behavior that Dr. Jung details in his research publication known as Psychological Types are categorized and divided into two opposing columns. These columns serve as the dichotomy between the attitudes of introversion and extraversion (Hall, Lindzey, 1970). This dichotomy represents the first opposing pair identified by Jung as the two different ways in which the mind adapts and orients itself to the surrounding world. He defines extraversion as our energy moving towards the outer layer of the world that surrounds places, people, and things. Conversely, he defines introversion as our energy moving towards the inner layer of the world that encompasses ideas and thoughts. To what degree the mind is attuned in either way dictates the “foundational aspect” of human personality (MBTI Type Today, n.d.). While the brain will alter itself on a moment-to-moment basis between these differing worlds based on arising needs and environmental circumstances, existing preferentially in one particular world over the other, Jung claims, is when the mind feels most at home with itself.
Discussion of Theory Concepts
After much observation and study, Jung soon discovered that the preference between the energy of either extraversion or introversion failed to account for all the differences in behavior that exists between individuals, he developed a second layer of classification known as perception (Hall, Lindzey, 1970). Divided into two groups the same as introversion and extraversion, the sensing perception includes the collecting of concrete, factual information utilizing the five senses of taste, touch, smell, hear, and see. The second includes intuitive perception defined by the connecting of the meanings behind what the sensory perception tells us; making an inference as a result of the data. Subsequently, once the mind has collected its information, this inference is then divides into Jung’s two opposing categories of judgment; including thinking and feeling (Hall, Lindzey, 1970). Thinking judgment is the way in which the mind evaluates information through the application of logical and objective criteria. Feeling judgment is the way in which the mind evaluates information through the consideration of what it believes to be important. Like the attitudes attributed to energy, Jung ascertained that individuals are pre-disposed to prefer one of the four judgments/perceptions over all others.
Role of Society and Individual Differences
A conjunction between pre-disposed extraversion or introversion coupled with either thinking or feeling judgment exists (Hall, Lindzey, 1970). Through something known as type code hierarchy (synonymous with type dynamics), a therapist can work with a given client to determine the specific combination that suits their mental preferences. Extraverted sensing, is defined by active and outward focus on the world through collecting factual information and “sensory experiences” (MBTI Type Today, n.d.). Introverted sensing is defined by reflective, inward focus on sensory experiences that are subjective along with the collection of historical, factual information. Extraverted intuition is defined by active and outward focus on new possibilities and patterns in the world. Introverted intuition is defined by the reflective and inward focus on symbols, insight, meanings, and patterns derived from the unconscious. Extraverted thinking is defined by the active and outward focus on the application of logic to the world through organizational, decision making structure. Introverted thinking is defined by the reflective and inward focus on determining the principles of logic and understanding the phenomena surrounding something. Extraverted feeling is defined by the active and outward focus of delivering order to the world through the seeking and creation of harmony with surrounding individuals; keeping an open mind to previously undiscovered values. Finally, introverted feeling is defined by the reflective and inward focus of deep, emotional values that aim to establish an equilibrium between personal behavior of values and evaluating “phenomena in light of those values” (MBTI Type Today, n.d). According to Dr. Jung, one has the potential to experience fatigue and/or depletion of energy when non-dominant mental functions are utilized for too great of a time (Hall, Lindzey, 1970). I believe that Jung’s ideas were soon merged with his colleagues to create the many facets of what society dictates is the definition of personality. Indeed many are introverted or extraverted, perceptive or intuitive, but there are more layers to the brain that is explained by Jung.
- Hall, C. S., & Lindzey, G. (1970). Theories of Personality. New York: Wiley.
- MBIT Type Today. (n.d.). Carl Jung and Psychological Types. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Instrument. Retrieved August 26, 2016 from http://mbtitoday.org/about-the-mbti- indicator/