Water is one of the most precious resources needed for all living things. It is vital to human, animals, and plants life. The quality and availability of water play a significant role in determining where people live. Although the Earth has many water bodies, fresh and clean water is not always available where and when it is needed (Poste & Richter, 2012). For these reasons, water is one of the finite resources that has boundaries and limits to its sustainability and availability for use. The report focuses on uses, the pros and cons and provides solutions to water issues facing the Earth.

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Uses of Water
Water is used in every household for different activities such as cleaning, washing, cooking, drinking, and growing food crops. In many homes, lack of water would be disastrous. People need water to take a bath, flush the toilet, and clean the house, water flowerbeds, cook, and drink (Flörke et al., 2013). Tap water is useful in all homes for watering vegetable gardens, filling swimming pools, and washing cars. Moreover, water is essential in all industries and agricultural activities. In many industries, water is utilized in large quantities. In many parts of the world, people rely on electricity produced by water (Flörke et al., 2013). Water is an important means of transportation. Water is also essential in the conversation of the ecosystem. Aquatic ecosystems depend on water for survival. Fish and other marine life cannot live out water bodies.

Pros and Cons of Water
Although water is one of the resources that no living thing can substitute, its use is limited in some areas due to quantity and quality available. Not all people around the world can access clean and healthy water. Water contains bacteria that threaten human life and it is important for human beings to treat water before using in their homes or offices. Contamination of water through human activities and mineral deposits has become a major concern to many water companies. These contaminants threaten human life in the long-run, and it is important that people do not use water that is harmful to their health (Gollehon & Quinby, 2000). Moreover, agricultural and other human activities threaten water sources. Irrigation has become an important method of producing food. However, large-scale irrigation affects the quality of water. Industries producing machines, food, and goods required to make human life comfortable need large amount of water during the manufacturing process (Gibbons, 2013). A large percent of water from water companies is directed to the industrial sector. Government ensures that people in a given country have access to clean water by enforcing health standards that water companies must adhere when providing water.

Another limitation of water is the diminishing water level on earth due to climate change. With climate change, rivers, lakes, and other sources fresh water are drying. Moreover, the earth is covered with water; however, most of the water is salty and not suitable for human consumption (Wilkinson, 2002). In few years, if the world does not focus on creating a solution to the problems, water will be a resource that very few people would access in the future. Moreover, implementing water systems is expensive for regions that are highly populated with limited access to water making it difficult for governments to provide to all people.

Solutions
One of the most important ways that availability of water can be increased is recycling water. Recycling water would reduce the amount of water that people need to use from rivers and lakes that are drying at an alarming rate. Farmers need to lessen the amount of water they use in growing crops. Improved irrigation and increased water efficiency would reduce water used in the agricultural sector. Use of conservation measures through the adoption of new technology for water management is also important (Gibbons, 2013). Moreover, the government need to investment in water conservation systems such as the use of grey water.

Government policies and regulations that improve the distribution and conservation of water are essential. Urban water conservation in households and industries would increase the quantity of water available for use. Tapping rainwater for future use in homes and industries would increase water security. Other methods that improve water conservation at home include water reuse, tiered water rates, and reduction of outdoor water use. Creating awareness of climate change and the need to reduce water pollution would ensure that all living things have enough water in the future (Pahl-Wostl et al., 2013). Projects on ground water recharge and new methods of storing water would increase water security. Research on reducing water contamination would increase the security of water in future years.

In conclusion, water is a resource that all living things need for their sustainability. People use water for irrigation, drinking, cooking, manufacturing, transportation, and leisure activities. For these reasons, lack of water would threaten human life because people would lack food, and drinking water. In this era where scientists warn people about climate change, water is a resource that needs conservation. Agricultural sector needs to invest in irrigation technologies that reduce water conservation. Households need to reuse and lessen the amount of water used through tiered water rates. Industries need to recycle water for manufacturing purposes. Moreover, the government needs to start initiatives that would increase water availability such as groundwater recharge. Increasing awareness of water shortage and the need to recycle and reuse water for its conversation would improve water security. Creating policies that reduce water pollution from industries would increase the availability of clean water for rivers and lakes.

    References
  • Flörke, M., Kynast, E., Bärlund, I., Eisner, S., Wimmer, F., & Alcamo, J. (2013). Domestic and industrial water uses of the past 60 years as a mirror of socio-economic development: A global simulation study. Global Environmental Change, 23(1), 144-156.
  • Gibbons, D. C. (2013). The economic value of water. Routledge.
  • Gollehon, N., & Quinby, W. (2000). Irrigation in the American West: Area, water and economic activity. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 16(2), 187-195.
  • Pahl-Wostl, C., Arthington, A., Bogardi, J., Bunn, S. E., Hoff, H., Lebel, L., … & Schlüter, M. (2013). Environmental flows and water governance: managing sustainable water uses. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 5(3), 341-351.
  • Postel, S., & Richter, B. (2012). Rivers for life: managing water for people and nature. Island Press.
  • Wilkinson, C. (2002). Western water: The ethical and spiritual questions.Seattle J. Soc. Just., 1, 367.