Question 1The core of scientific management theory is the scientific study of work processes to improve productivity at the workplace (Mullins & Christy, 2013). In particular, the time and motions involved in doing a job are closely studied to identify points that need improvement. In view of this, there are type of employees for whom scientific management can work best. They include employees doing clerical work, those working in restaurants, manual laborers in building industry and computer operators. These are less technical work, involving several employees hence it is important to closely monitor productivity. Many firms today have taken the step of using various softwares to monitor either time or productivity of their employees (Mullins & Christy, 2013). This is done to ensure that the employees are giving their best effort, and that the firm is getting value for money.

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Question 2
The problems that scientific management can solve include absenteeism, labour turnover, lower productivity and poor quality. Looking at this issues more broadly, scientific management outlines important principles that have to be implemented. First, the manager has to scientifically evaluate the task to be done. The idea is that a better way to perform the task exists. Hence, task performance should not unnecessarily wastes time or be tiresome to the employees. Secondly, there is need to select workers who are qualified for the job. This principle of matching employees’ abilities to the job is crucial in maximizing productivity (Mullins & Christy, 2013). Thirdly, employees should be trained and given incentives. Training employees is critical in ensuring that they acquire the competence and skills to undertake their roles. It also ensures that less mistakes are committed and more effort is directed towards getting the job done in the right way. Lastly, there is need to plan the job well. The purpose of planning is to ensure there is proper coordination which makes the job enjoyable and maximizes productivity. All these principles are important in addressing the above problems. First, work will be less demanding and tiresome. The resulting rise in productivity, coupled with incentives should work to motivate the employees and reduce the turnover rates. Training will also help in improving the quality of work, as well as productivity. They will be able to undertake more responsibilities, and this will help to also motivate them, and reduce turnover and absenteeism rates (McNamara, 2008).

Question 3
There are a number of steps that can be adopted to address the above problems. First, higher absenteeism and turnover rates are related to lack of motivation. It will be important to have a number of incentives to address this issue. First, the firm can offer differential pay to ensure that those producing more earn more (Mullins & Christy, 2013). People will be motivated to work harder and qualify for higher pay. Besides, better performers can be given additional leave days or vacation as a way of motivating them and inspiring others. Secondly, there has to be a structured way of conducting training to ensure that employees are getting better in their roles. This will ensure that employees acquire critical skills that will enable them work more without compromising quality. Employees should also be provided with the tools they require to carry out their tasks. Working environment should also be tidy, well light and aerated to enable them work comfortably. Lastly, people should be given tasks they are able to perform to the required standards. This should also include the fact that opportunities for progress should be handed out fairly. If employees feel that they are unfairly treated, they may not see the need to continue working hard. This may lead to demotivation, poor workmanship, absenteeism and higher labour turnover.

    References
  • Mullins, L. J., & Christy, G. (2013). Management & Organisational Behaviour. New York: Prentice Hall.
  • McNamara, C. (2008). Employee training and development: reasons and benefits. Authenticity Consulting, LLC.